Touches with crafts collected from across the valley, and ecofriendly efforts such as plastic-free shampoo containers are commendable. LCA of Degradable Plastic Bags Karli James Manager Sustainable Products Centre for Design at RMIT University URL: Tim Grant Manager Life Cycle. Here is a.pdf of the Nearpod presentation to download: oneplasticbagentrepreneurialthinking.pdf: File Size: 3635 kb: File Type: pdf: Download File.
“Guides readers toward the road less consumptive, offering practical advice and moral support while making a convincing case that individual actions . . . do matter.” —Elizabeth Royte, author, Garbage Land and Bottlemania Like many people, Beth Terry didn’t think an individual could have much impact on the environment. But while laid up after surgery, she read an article about the staggering amount of plastic polluting the oceans, and decided then and there to kick her plastic habit. In Plastic-Free, she shows you how you can too, providing personal anecdotes, stats about the environmental and health problems related to plastic, and individual solutions and tips on how to limit your plastic footprint. Presenting both beginner and advanced steps, Terry includes handy checklists and tables for easy reference, ways to get involved in larger community actions, and profiles of individuals—Plastic-Free Heroes—who have gone beyond personal solutions to create change on a larger scale. Fully updated for the paperback edition, Plastic-Free also includes sections on letting go of eco-guilt, strategies for coping with overwhelming problems, and ways to relate to other people who aren’t as far along on the plastic-free path. Both a practical guide and the story of a personal journey from helplessness to empowerment, Plastic-Free is a must-read for those concerned about the ongoing health and happiness of themselves, their children, and the planet.
Product Details :
|Genre||: House & Home|
|Author||: Beth Terry|
|Publisher||: Simon and Schuster|
|File||: 384 Pages|
#1 eBook Free in [pdf] [kindle] [epub] [tuebl] [mobi] [audiobook], #1 New Release 2020 >>
Plastic shopping bags, or carrier bags or plastic grocery bags, are a common type of
Plastic shopping bags are usually made of
Although not in use today, plastic shopping bags could be made from Polylactic acid (PLA) a biodegradable polymer derived from lactic acid. [ [http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AE210 Notes from the Packaging Laboratory: Polylactic Acid -- An Exciting New Packaging Material] ] This is one form of vegetable-based
Bags made of
Plastic shopping bags have advantages and disadvantages when compared to paper bags. Heavy duty multiple-use shopping bags (usually made of canvas) are often considered environmentally better than single-use paper or plastic shopping bags. Single-use bags can be recycled, or can be reused by individuals as trash bags, storage bags, etc.Biodegradable Plastics Shopping Bags [ [http://www.kaysons.in/articles/bionorms.htm KAYSONS - Biodegradation Norms ] ] are a new addition that is environment friendly, can be used for single use utilities and when composted biodegrade into biomass, carbon dioxide (permissible emission standards as per EN 13432 and ASTM D 6400) and water.
Compared to paper bags
* Plastic bags are durable, strong, low cost, and water and chemicals resistant.
* They can be welded and have lesser energy and heavy chemicals requirements in manufacture.
* The light weight of plastic bags results in fewer atmosphere emissions compared to paper bags.
* Many studies comparing plastic versus paper for shopping bags show that plastic bags have less net environmental effect than paper bags, requiring less energy to produce, transport and recycle; however these studies also note that recycling rates for plastic are significantly lower than for paper. [http://web.archive.org/web/20060426235724/http://www.epa.gov/region1/communities/shopbags.html Questions About Your Community: Shopping Bags: Paper or Plastic or . . .?] ]
* Plastic bags can be incinerated in appropriate facilities for
* Plastic bags are stable and benign in sanitary
* Plastic carrier bags can be
* Plastic bags are complimentary in many locations (but are charged or 'taxed' in others).
* Plastic bags are made from
* Plastic bags are flimsy and often do not stand up as well as paper or cloth for certain tasks.
* When disposed of improperly, they are unsightly and represent a hazard to wildlife. See environmental impacts section below.
* Plastic bags, conventional or 'biodegradable', do not readily biodegrade in a sanitary landfill, though neither does paper due to lack of oxygen. Fact date=July 2008
* Plastic bags (particularly thin dry cleaning bags) can cause unsupervised infants to suffocate. [http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PUBS/5064.html Children Still Suffocating with Plastic Bags}] ]
Used bags should not be littered: this is unsightly, damages wildlife and exposes fisheries to eminent danger. [ [http://www.algalita.org/pelagic_plastic_mov.html Algalita Marine Research Foundation - Research - Synthetic Sea Preview ] ] Aquatic life can be threatened through entanglement, suffocation, and ingestion. [ [http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/marinelitter/publications/docs/anl_oview.pdf United Nations Environment Programme ] ] One animal dissected by Dutch researchers contained 1,603 pieces of plastic. All sea creatures are threatened by floating plastic, from whales down to zooplankton. Research proves the '
Sea turtles may ingest bags seen floating in the water. The reason that turtles ingest marine debris is not known with certainty. It has been suggested that debris, such as plastic bags, look similar to, and are mistaken for jellyfish.http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/marinelitter/publications/docs/plastic_ocean_report.pdf] Birds swoop down and swallow indigestible shards of plastic. The petroleum-based plastics take decades to break down, and as long as they float on the ocean's surface, they can appear as feeding grounds. 'These animals die because the plastic eventually fills their stomachs,' Ocean Conservancy vice president Warner Chabot said. 'It doesn't pass, and they literally starve to death.' [ [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/10/19/SS6JS8RH0.DTL Continent-size toxic stew of plastic trash fouling swath of Pacific Ocean ] ] A study of the seafloor using trawl nets in the North-Western Mediterranean around the coasts of Spain, France and Italy in 1993/4 reported a particularly high mean concentration of debris (1935 items/km2 or 19.35 items/hectare) (Galgani et al. 1995).77% of the debris was plastics and of this, 92.8% were plastic bags.
Nearly 80% of litter in the ocean comes from land-based sources. [Faris, J. and Hart, K., Seas of Debris: A Summary of the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, N.C. Sea Grant College Program and NOAA, 1994, title page.] Most of the land-based debris is conveyed to oceans via urban runoff through storm drains. The main source of plastic bags in the ocean is from urban runoff. [ [http://www.plasticdebris.org/ Plastic Debris Rivers to Sea Project ] ]
Reducing, reusing and recycling
Sturdy reusable shopping bags are EPA environmentally superior to single-use plastic shopping bags. Fact date=July 2008 A sturdy, reusable bag needs only be used 11 times to have a lower environmental impact than using 11 disposable plastic bags (providing you somehow dispose of your household waste without using bags). Reuse and recycling of plastic bags is encouraged, however reduction of use lessens overall environmental impact. Paper is accepted in most recycling programs while the recycling rate for plastic bags is very low, research from 2000 shows 20 percent of paper bags were recycled, while one percent of plastic bags were recycled. [http://web.archive.org/web/20060426235724/http://www.epa.gov/region1/communities/shopbags.html EPA NE: Questions About Your Community - Shopping Bags: Paper or Plastic or . . . ? ] ] Shopping bags can also be
According to the
According to the UK government
* the high volume to weight ratio of plastic means that the collection and transport of this waste is difficult and expensive
* there are often high levels of contamination in plastic making the recyclate less usable, especially where food products are involved
* there is a very wide range of plastics in use and segregation is difficult
* the market for using recycled plastic is underdeveloped
Plastic shopping bags by country
In Australia shoppers are now encouraged to buy bags called 'green bags' which cost about a dollar, but can be reused many times. The bags are coloured depending on the company that sells them. Some 'green bags' are insulated for the carrying of hot or cold items. Locally, the town of Coles Bay in Tasmania banned plastic shopping bags in April, 2003. [Planet Ark: [http://www.planetark.com/campaignspage.cfm/newsid/58/newsDate/7/story.htm Coles Bay, Australia's First Plastic Bag Free Town] ] In early 2008, the Australian Federal Government stated it would consider action that would result in plastic bags being phased out by the end of 2008. [ [http://www.edie.net/news/news_story.asp?id=14045&channel=0 Oz considers bag ban] ] Australians used 4.84 billion plastic bags in 2007, at a wholesale cost of $0.0018 each [ [http://news.smh.com.au/govt-urged-to-act-on-plastic-bags/20080320-20l2.html Govt urged to act on plastic bags] ] The bags each weigh 35grams and are used to wrap many Australian products such as fruits and vegetables. The shopping bags themselves account for 10% or less of the plastic Australian shoppers carry home from supermarkets. In South Australia free single use plastic bags will banned as of the end of 2008. [ [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/04/080404-plastic-bags.html Plastic-Bag Bans Gaining Momentum Around the World ] ]
Plastic shopping bags are banned in Bangladesh, where they are thought to cause flooding during monsoons by clogging drains.Fact date=July 2007
Plastic shopping bags have been banned in Bhutan, on the grounds that they make the country less happy. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_pictures/4782636.stm Report on Bhutan's Happiness Formula on BBC website] ] See
However,the ban has not been successful at all and no current initiatives address the issue.See media coverage www.kuensel.com for First National Waste Management Conference August 2008.Alternatives to plastic bags are not being encouraged, segregation of any waste is not currently undertaken and recycling or waste-energy facilities are not available within the country.
Beginning on June 1 2008, for the entire country of China, all supermarkets, department stores and shops will be prohibited from giving out free plastic bags. Stores must clearly mark the price of plastic shopping bags and are banned from tacking that price onto products. The production, sale and use of ultra-thin plastic bags - those less than 0.025 millimeters, or 0.00098 inches, thick - are also banned. The State Council calls for 'a return to cloth bags and shopping baskets.' [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/01/09/asia/plastic.php 'China bans free plastic shopping bags'] , AP Press via the '
Hong Kong enjoys a set of different laws as one of China's
Growing awareness of the ecological impact of plastic bags has led main mass retailers to force customers to buy reusable plastic or non-woven bags. This has been adopted by supermarkets such as Carrefour, which has managed to improve its image and save itself the purchase of the former plastic bags. Nonfood related retailers such as Cloth tend to prefer to switch to paper bags, allowing them to match the ecological demand and upgrade their image on two aspects: ecology and quality. In Paris, a ban on plastic bags will take effect in late 2007; a nationwide ban is scheduled to take effect on 1 January 2010.
In Spain, supermarkets give free plastic bags except some as Día which charge 3 cents per bag.Recently, Spanish Government wants to adopt the National Plan of Integrated Waste which has among its objectives in 2010 to ban plastic bags single-use non-biodegradable. Spain is the leading producer of plastic bags for a single use and the third consumer in Europe. Each year 10,500 million plastic bags are distributed in Spain, with a total weight of 96,000 tons. 62% of plastic bags are reused as garbage bags and 10% are recycled through the yellow containers.
Generally, most German supermarkets charge between 5 and 25 cents per single-use bag, depending on the type of bag. Most shops also offer cloth bags or sturdier, woven plastic bags for about €1, encouraging shoppers to re-use them. Many high-street retail shops will provide bags free of charge. Most people will re-use single-use shopping bags, i.e., for collecting deposit bottles or using them as bin liners.Fact date=December 2007
On March 4, 2002 the
The entire country of Israel has enacted legislation to add a surcharge for every plastic bag. Bags that contain fish, meat, poultry or fresh produce won't incur any charge. Aside from that, every plastic bag given to a customer will incur a charge of 1 NIS which will be shown as a separate item on their receipt. The proposal will also subsidize for 6 months the sale of reusable bags, in order to create public awareness of the law. [ [http://www.globes.co.il/serveen/globes/DocView.asp?did=1000293150&fid=1725 Globes [online - Ministerial c'tee okays charge of NIS 1 per plastic bag ] ]
In recent years cloth bags have been promoted and sold by some supermarkets as an alternative to plastic bags. In August 2006 the Collingwood community in
In the town of
The littering of plastic shopping bags has created major environmental problems throughout Turkey. Currently, Turkish people use on average 1.2 bags per day each, most of which end up not being disposed of properly. The government has launched a feasibility study into the movement towards envirobags; however, this is not due until late 2008. However, Turkey has made the most success over the past time.
Pdf Free Download For Windows 7
One Plastic Bag Pdf Free Download Pdf
Growing awareness in the UK of the problems caused by indiscriminate use of plastic bags is encouraging some large retailers to reward customers who bring their own bags or who reuse or recycle existing bags. This has been adopted by
A campaign called [http://www.morsbags.com morsbags.com] has started in the UK and is spreading around the world. It involves making shopping bags out of recycled, unwanted material and handing them out for free. It is known as 'sociable guerrilla bagging' and it's free for anyone around the world to join up and join in - 'make a bag, make a difference'.
Having previously charged 5p for its single use bags, in 2007
On 24 July 2007 [http://www.green-england.co.uk/plasticbagpetition Green-England.co.uk] commenced a petition for a 10p tax to be introduced on disposable plastic bags, with the money raised to be spent specifically on environmental projects. The petition was specifically endorsed by the Green Party and more than 10,000 signatures were obtained within the first two months. Letters about the petition were sent to Secretary of State for Environment Food and Rural Affairs
Following an online survey the [http://www.londoncouncils.gov.uk/ London Councils] announced on 13 November 2007 that the 10th London Local Authorities Bill would include a provision to ban the distribution of free throw-away shopping bags in the capital. [ [http://www.londoncouncils.gov.uk/doc.asp?doc=21262&cat=937 London Councils' press release 13/11/2007] ] The London Local Authorities (Shopping Bag) Bill was deposited in Parliament on 27 November 2007. If the Bill is passed by Parliament, it is expected to become law by mid-2009.
On 12 January 2008
On 28 February 2008
Plastic bags have largely displaced paper bags as the most common type of shopping bag during the late 1980s and early 1990s. There has been no broad government action against the
On March 27, 2007, the City and County of
Plastic shopping bags are banned in at least 30 villages and towns in Alaska, including the towns of Emmonak, Galena, and Kotlik. [ [http://www.ccthita-swan.org/main/plastic_bag_ban.cfm Banning Plastic Bags From Your Community] ]
The island of
* Selke, S, 'Packaging and the Environment', 1994, ISBN 1566761042
* Selke, S,. 'Plastics Packaging', 2004, ISBN 1569903727
* Stillwell, E. J, 'Packaging for the Environment', A. D. Little, 1991, ISBN 0814450741
* Scheirs, J., 'Polymer Recycling: Science, Technology and Applications', 1998, ISBN 0471970549
One Plastic Bag Pdf Free Download Version
One Plastic Bag Pdf free. download full
* [http://www.progressivebagalliance.com www.progressivebagalliance.com]
* [http://www.plasticshoppingbagfree.org.nz/index.php?PageID=67 www.plasticshoppingbagfree.org.nz]
* [http://www.climatecrisis.net/pdf/10things.pdf www.climatecrisis.net] - 10 ways to reduce your carbon emissions