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  1. Most helpful to give your student(s) a brief lesson on the topic (main idea, fact/detail, inference, etc.), and then have them spend the remainder of the class or session reading the passages and answering the questions. When you finish, take some time for a brief review session. 501 Reading Comprehension Questions.
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  3. Peter Drucker's five questions are: These essential questions, grounded in Peter Drucker's theories of management, will take readers on a exploration of organizational and personal self-discovery, giving them a means to assess how to be -how to develop quality, character, mind-set, values and courage. The questions lead to action.
  4. Important stakeholders, with opportunities for interaction on major issues, also are critical. STEP 2: Identify Major Concerns. Reach consensus on the goals (desired outcomes) of greatest importance to the target group. Refine the list of goals to the top 3 – 5 goals. Brainstorm a list of concerns/factors for each of the goals.

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1Most Important General Knowledge Questions Hindi PDF Download1.1General knowledge Book PDF in Hindi Download
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Most Important General Knowledge Questions Hindi PDF Download

1. The main function of palisade parenchyma in leaf is :
(A) respiration (B) photosynthesis
(C) transpiration (D) conduction
Ans : (B)

2. The harmful substances produced by the microbes are known as :
(A) hormones (B) toxins
(C) antibiotics (D) pollutants
Ans : (B)

3. Which is the world’s cultural capital in India?
(A) Kolkata (B) Trivandrum
(C) Madurai (D) Mumbai
Ans : (A)

4. A cyclone occurs when :
(A) there is a low pressure in the center and high pressure around
(B) the pressure in the centre is equal to the pressure around
(C) there is low pressure all around
(D) there is a high pressure in the centre and low pressure around.
Ans : (A)

5. The previous name of Zaire was :
(A) Congo (B) Sierra Leone
(C) Benin (D) Liberia
Ans : (A)

6. The first organic compound synthesized in the laboratory was :
(A) lactic acid (B) glucose
(C) urea (D) uric acid
Ans : (C)

7. The buffer action of blood is due to the presence of :
(A) Cl– and HCO–3 (B) HCO3– and H2CO3
(C) HCl and NaCl (D) Cl– and CO32–
Ans : (B)

8. An earthquake is also known as :
(A) tremor (B) temper
(C) teacher (D) None of these
Ans : (A)

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9. Our atmosphere is divided into……………layers.
(A) four (B) five
(C) two (D) three
Ans : (B)

10. The waves used in sonography are :
(A) sound waves (B) ultrasonic waves
(C) microwaves (D) infra-red waves
Ans : (B)

11. If a body moves with a constant speed in a circle :
(A) no acceleration is produced in it (B) its velocity remains constant
(C) no work is done on it (D) no force acts on it
Ans : (C)

12. Who among the following is was the 15th Prime Minister of India?
(A) Manmohan Singh (B) Narendra Modi
(C) Atal Bihari Vajpayee (D) None of these
Ans : (B)

13. Thalassemia is an example of :
(A) Deletion mutation (B) Point mutation
(C) Silent mutation (D) Frameshift mutation
Ans : (D)

14. The planet which has the highest surface temperature is :
(A) Jupiter (B) Earth
(C) Pluto (D) Venus
Ans : (D)

15. The policy of imperial preferences adopted by Britain in its colonies in 1932 is also known as the :
(A) Hong Kong Agreement (B) London Agreement
(C) Ottawa Agreement (D) Paris Agreement
Ans : (C)

16. the playing time (in seconds) of the full version of Indian National Anthem is :
(A) 60 (B) 52
(C) 55 (D) 57
Ans : (B)

17. The tomb of Jahangir was built at :
(A) Gujarat (B) Delhi
(C) Lahore (D) Agra
Ans : (C)

18. The two richest Eco-zones of India are :
(A) The Himalayas and Vindhyas
(B) The Himalayas and Eastern Ghats
(C) The Himalayas and Western Ghats
(D) The Himalayas and Arvalis
Ans : (C)

19. At the time of independence, predominantly India practised :
(A) Subsistence agriculture (B) Mixed farming
(C) Plantation agriculture (D) Shifting agriculture
Ans : (A)

20. Public opinion is :
(A) THe poinion of the maiority
(B) The poinion of the people on political matters
(C) Opinion of the citizens of the country
(D) The Opinion based on reasoning which is for the welfare of hte whole society
Ans : (A)

21. Eutrophication of a water body enhances :
(A) Organic matter production (B) Biological oxygen demand
(C) Both (A) and (B) (D) Neither (A) nor (B)
Ans : (C)

22. Where is the headquarters of the International Olympic Committee located?
(A) Italy (B) Switzerland
(C) Belgium (D) France
Ans : (B)

21. Who was the brand ambassador of Nokia Phones in India?
(A) Alia Bhatt (B) Aamir Khan
(C) Abhishek Bachchan (D) M.S. Dhoni
Ans : (A)

23. A computer program that translates one program instruction one at a time into machine language is called a/an :
(A) Interpreter (B) Compiler
(C) Simulator (D) Commander
Ans : (A)

25. The main feature of the Federal State is :
(A) Decentralisation (B) Centralisation
(C) Theory of separation of powers (D) Sovereignty
Ans : (A)

26. Which one of the following is an item included in the list of Fundamental Duties of an Indian citizen in the Constitution?
(A) To practice secularism.
(B) To develop scientific temper, humanis, and the spirit o fenquiry and reform.
(C) To pay all taxes to government regularly and correctly.
(D) Not to assault any public servant in the (during) performance of his duties.
Ans : (B)

27. Where is the headquarters fo Hindustan Zinc Ltd?
(A) udaipur (B) Jodhpur
(C) Jaisalmer (D) Jaipur
Ans : (A)

28. RBI gave in-principle approval for the following identities to start ‘Small Bank’, which of these is not a microfinance institution?
(A) Au Financiers (Jaipur)
(B) Equitas Holdings Pvt. Ltd. (Chennai)
(C) RGVN (North East) (Guwahati)
(D) Disha Microfin Pvt. Ltd. (Ahmedabad)
Ans : (A)

29. The most advanced form of Read Only Memory (ROM) is :
(C) Cache Memory (D) EEPROM
Ans : (D)

30. What accumulates in the muscles after continuous strenuous physical exercise as a result of temporary anaerobic respiration that causes muscular fatigue?
(A) ATP (B) Lactic acid
(C) Ethyl alcohol (D) Carbon dioxide
Ans : (B)

31. Who is called the ‘Father of Economics’?
(A) Adam Smith (B) Alfred Marshall
(C) Max Muller (D) Karl Marx
Ans : (A)

32. The longest river in the world is :
(A) Brahmaputra (B) Amazon
(C) Ganga (D) Nile
Ans : (D)

33. The first to invade India were the :
(A) Persians (B) Arabs
(C) Aryans (D) Greeks
Ans : (C)

34. Niyamgiri hill is located in Kalahandi district of :
(A) Punjab (B) Kerala
(C) Odisha (D) Paschim Bengal
Ans : (C)

35. The Indian Supercomputer built by CRL, Pune which ranked fourth fastest in the world and most powerful in Asia is called :
(C) Virgo (D) Param
Ans : (A)

36. A solution is :
(A) a solid dissolved in water (B) a mixture of two liquids
(C) a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances (D) a solid dissolved in a liquid.
Ans : (C)

37. Who among the following Mughal rulers has been called the ‘Prince of Builders?
(A) Shah Jahan (B) Babur
(C) Akbar (D) Jahangir
Ans : (A)

38. Name the American film cartoonist who created Mickey mouse and Donald Duck :
(A) Steven Spielberg (B) Hanna Barbera
(C) Warner Brothers (D) Walt Disney
Ans : (D)

39. Name the oldest Indian civilization :
(A) Mesopotamian civilization (B) Egyption civilization
(C) Indus valley civilization (D) None of these
Ans : (C)

40. Fifth Generation Computers are :
(A) Data interpreters (B) Data Controllers
(C) Data Processors (D) Knowledge processors
Ans : (D)

41. Which of the following water bodies is not a freshwater resource?
(A) Jaisamand (B) Ganga river
(C) Yamuna river (D) Chilika lake
Ans : (C)

42. Who among the following is the Home-Minister in the Union Cabinet of India?
(A) Sushma Swaraj (B) Narendra Modi
(C) Rajnath Singh (D) Arun Jaitley
Ans : (C)


43. The moment of inertia of a body does not depend upon its :
(A) axis of rotation (B) angular velocity
(C) form of mass (D) distribution of mass
Ans : (B)

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44. In a conductor :
(A) there is no conduction band
(B) the forbidden energy gap is very wide
(C) the forbidden energy gap is very narrow
(D) the valence band and the conduction band overlap each other
Ans : (D)

45. Atmospheric temperature increasing at the higher altitudes is called :
(A) Radiation (B) Inversion
(C) Conduction (D) Convection
Ans : (B)

46. The maximum strength of Rajya Sabha is :
(A) 220 (B) 200
(C) 250 (D) 240
Ans : (B)

47. If the President of India wants to resign, he has to address the letter of resignation to the :
(A) Chief Justics of India (B) Prime Minister
(C) Vice-President (D) Speaker
Ans : (C)

48. Who acts as the channel of communication between the Pesident and the Council Ministers?
(A) Chairman, Rajya Sabha (B) Speaker of Lok Sabha
(C) Vice-President (D) Prime Minister
Ans : (D)

49. Largest producer of Bauxite in the world is :
(A) U.S.A. (B) Jamaica
(C) Chile (D) Australia
Ans : (D)

  • ज़रूर पढ़े :- 500 Most Important GK In Hindi Current Affairs 2019 PDF Download
  • ज़रूर पढ़े :-5000 Test GK Questions & Answer For All Competitive Exam

general knowledge questions in hindi pdf

50. Who among the following was responsible for the revival of Hinduism in 19th century?
(A) Swami Dayanand (B) Swami Vivekanand
(C) Guru Shankaracharya (D) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Ans : (B)

51. The Noble Peace Prize is awarded in which city?
(A) Burssels (B) Geneva
(C) Oslo (D) Stockhlm
Ans : (C)

52. Just born baby has the respiratory rate as :
(A) 32 times/minute (B) 26 times/minute
(C) 18 times/minute (D) 15times.minute
Ans : (A)

53. Which of the following is very reactive and kept in kerosene?
(A) Sodium (B) Potassium
(C) Iodine (D) Bromine
Ans : (A)

54. According to keynes, business cycles are edue to variation in the rate of investment caused by fluctuations, in the :
(A) Marginal efficiency of capital
(B) Marginal propensity to save
(C) Marginal propensity to consumption
(D) Marginal efficiency to investment
Ans : (A)

55. The main emphasis of Keynesian economics is on :
(A) Expenditure (B) Exchange
(C) Foreign trade (D) Taxation
Ans : (A)

56. Who among the Delhi Sultans died of a sudden fall from a horse at lahore while playing Chaugan?
(A) Qutbuddin Aibak (B) Iltutmish
(C) Balban (D) Jalaluddin Khilji
Ans : (A)

57. Buddha means :
(A) Great Conqueror (B) Great saint
(C) Wise one (D) Enlightened one
Ans : (D)

58. The excretory aperture in Paramoecium is known as :
(A) Cytopharynx (B) Cytostome
(C) Cytopyge (D) Crypotspere
Ans : (C)

59. IVF (In Vitro Fertilizatio) Technique was first devised by :
(A) Patrick Steptoe adn Robert Edward (B) Dr. Henry dixon
(C) Robertson (D) Dr. Martin Cooper
Ans : (A)

60. Which of the schemes of the Government of India makes Indian cities free from slums?
(A) Rajiv Awas Yojana (B) Antyodaya
(C) Indira Awas Yojana (D) Central Rural Sanitation Programme
Ans : (A)

61. Indian economy is a :
(A) capitalistic economy (B) centralized economy
(C) mixed economy (D) communistic economy
Ans : (C)

62. Who built the famous Vaikunta Perumal temple at Kanchipuram?
(A) Nandi Varman II (B) Aparajita Varman
(C) Narasimha Varman II (D) Parameshvara Varman II
Ans : (A)

63. UNO was founded in the year :
(A) 1950 (B) 1953
(C) 1945 (D) 1946
Ans : (C)

64. Universal adult franchise shows that India is a country which is :
(A) democratic (B) sovereign
(C) secular (D) socialist
Ans : (A)

65. The largest fresh water lake in India is :
(A) Wular lake (B) Nainital lake
(C) Dal lake (D) Bhimtal lake
Ans : (A)

66. Who was awarded the first Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana Award?
(A) Mother Teresa (B) Morarji Desai
(C) JRD Tata (D) None of these
Ans : (A)

67. International Literacy Day is observed on Which one of the following days every year?
(A) 28th March (B) 18th September
(C) 8th September (D) 18th March
Ans : (C)

68. Who is called Rawalpindi Express?
(A) Rahul Dravid (B) Imran Khan
(C) Sachin Tendulkar (D) Shoaib Akhtar
Ans : (D)

69. Who is the author of ‘A Suitable Boy’?
(A) Arundhati Roy (B) Kushwant Singh
(C) Vikram Seth (D) None of these
Ans : (C)

70. Interveinal necrotic spots on leaves appear due to :
(A) HF injury (B) SO2 injury
(C) NO2 injury (D) O3 injury
Ans : (B)

71. Nuclear fallout contains :
(A) Alpha particles (B) b-particles
(C) Both (A) and (B) (D) Neither (A) and (B)
Ans : (C)

72. Nucleons are regarded as composites sub-particles known as :
(A) Mesons (B) Quarks
(C) Leptons (D) Photons
Ans : (B)

73. To open a door easily, the handle should be fixed :
(A) near the hinges (B) away from id-point opposite to hinges
(C) in the middle (D) None of these
Ans : (D)

74. How many bytes are equal to one kilobyte?
(A) 1050 (B) 1000
(C) 976 (D) 1024
Ans : (D)

75. Which one of the following converts assembly language into machine language?
(A) Algorithm (B) Interpreter
(C) Compiler (D) Assembler
Ans : (D)

76. Species which has restricted distribution is called :
(A) Eco species (B) Endemic
(C) Sympatric (D) Allopatric
Ans : (B)

77. Franchising is :
(A) not having to pay and fee (B) a form of licensing
(C) operating a business without a licence (D) operating with less control
Ans : (B)

78. Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yojana was introduced in :
(A) 1992 (B) 1998
(C) 1999 (D) 1996
Ans : (C)

79. Buyers and Sellers will have perfect knowledge of market conditions under :
(A) Duopoly (B) Perfect competition
(C) Monopolistic competition (D) Oligopoly
Ans : (A)

80. Which Indian State is the leading cotton producer?
(A) Gujarat (B) Maharashtra
(C) Andhra Pradesh (D) Madhya Pradesh
Ans : (A)

81. The ‘more mega store’ retail chain belongs to which indian Industry?
(A) Reliance industry (B) Bharti Enterprises
(C) Aditya Birla Group (D) None of thesse
Ans : (C)

82. Vulcanized rubber contains suplhur :
(A) 2% (B) 3-5%
(C) 7-9% (D) 10-15%
Ans : (B)

83. In the periodic table of elements, on moving from left to right across a period, the atomic radius :
(A) decreases (B) increases
(C) remains unchanged (D) does not follow as definite pattern
Ans : (A)

84. If the average revenue is a horizontal straight line, masrginal revenue will be :
(A) U shaped (B) Kinked
(C) Identical with average revenue (D) L shaped
Ans : (C)

85. The hypodthesis that rapid growth fo per capita income will be associated with a reduction in poverty is called :
(A) trickle down Hypothesis (B) trickle up hypothesis
(C) U shaped hypothesis (D) poverty estimation hypothesis
Ans : (A)

86. Which one of the following coins was issued in silver during the Gupta period?
(A) Kakini (B) Nishka
(C) Rupyaka (D) Dinar
Ans : (C)

87. Lothal, the dockyard site of the Indus Valley Civilization, is situated in :
(A) Gujarat (B) Punjab
(C) Pakistan (D) Haryana
Ans : (A)

88. Which of the following is an example of parasitic alga?
(A) Ulothrix (B) Caphaleuros
(C) Oedogonium (D) Sargassum
Ans : (B)

89. Solitary cymose inflorescence is observed in :
(A) Rose (B) Chinarose
(C) Tuberose (D) Gardenia
Ans : (D)

90. What is meant by ‘Capital Gain?
(A) Appreciation in the money value of assets
(B) Additions to the capital invested in a business
(C) Part of profits added to the capital
(D) None of the above.
Ans : (A)

91. Which of the following listed is not a feature of organic farming?
(A) Use of synthetic fertilizers
(B) Very less energy consumption
(C) The non-use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
(D) Soil is nurtured for future use by maintaining micro-organisms
Ans : (A)

92. The name of the great maestro of Indian Music “Ustad Bismillah Khan” is related to :
(A) Shehnai (B) Tabla
(C) Sarod (D) Flute
Ans : (A)

93. Which one of the following types of malaria is pernicious malaria?
(A) Tertian (B) Malignant
(C) Vivax (D) Relapse
Ans : (B)

94. Who wrote the book ‘System a Naturae’?
(A) Darwin (B) Linnaeus
(C) Lamarck (D) Buffon
Ans : (B)

95. In which year was Anti-Defection Bill passed by the Indian Parliament?
(A) 1990 (B) 1995
(C) 1980 (D) 1985
Ans : (D)

96. How many fundamental duties are there in our Indian Constitution?
(A) 12 (B) 8
(C) 11 (D) 9
Ans : (C)

97. A metal ball and a rubber ball, both having the same mass, strike a wall normally with the same velocity. The rubber ball rebounds and the metal ball does not rebound. It can be concluded that :
(A) both suffer the same change in momentum
(B) the initial momentum of the rubber ball is greater than that of the metal ball
(C) the rubber ball suffers greater change in momentum
(D) the metal ball suffers greater change in momentum
Ans : (C)

98. If the phase difference between two points is 120° for a wave with a velocity of 360 m/s and frequency 500 Hz, then path difference between the two points is :
(A) 12 cm (B) 24 cm
(C) 1 cm (D) 6 cm
Ans : (B)

99. Who invented the electric bulb?
(A) Thomas Alva Edison (B) James Watt
(C) Thomas More (D) None of these
Ans : (A)

100. Who invented aeroplane?
(A) Hoffman (B) Wright Brothers
(C) Edison (D) Stevenson
Ans : (B)

general knowledge questions in hindi pdf

  1. सलेम स्टील प्लांट कहां स्थित है? – तमिलनाडु
  2. वातावरण में संधनन तब होता है जब – तापमान ओसांक तक पहुंच जाता है
  3. रत के उत्तरी विशाल मैदानों में किस प्रकार की मिट्टी पाई जाती है? – जलोढ़ मिट्टी
  4. समानता का अधिकार भारतीय नागरिक के लिए सुनिश्चित करता है – सामाजिक पर्व तथा राजनीतिक समानता
  5. सामाजिक वानिकी का मुख्य प्रयोजन क्या होता है? – बड़े पैमाने पर वन रोपण
  6. पीरपंजाल श्रेणी कहां स्थित है? – जम्मू कश्मीर
  7. भाषा के आधार पर भारतीय राज्यों की पुन संरचना किस वर्ष की गई थी? – 1956
  8. देश में बेरोजगारी बढ़ने का मुख्य कारण निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा है? – जनसंख्या में तीव्र वृद्धि
  9. संसदीय तंत्र में निम्नलिखित में से वास्तविक कार्यपालिका कौन सा है – मंत्री परिषद
  10. भारत में न्यायपालिका है – स्वतंत्र
  11. कथकली नृत्य किस राज्य से संबंधित है – केरल
  12. बिहार में सिंदरी किस लिए प्रसिद्ध है – रासायनिक उर्वरक
  13. प्रकाश वर्ष किसका इकाई है? – दूरी का
  14. सर्वाधिक भू परिमाण वाला देश है – रूस
  15. पाई क्या है – किरण

General knowledge Book PDF in Hindi Download

  • शब्द संक्षेप
    पिछले 15 वर्षों के SSC के प्रश्न पत्रों में “शब्द संक्षेप”
  • राष्ट्रिय एवं अंतराष्ट्रीय दिवस
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general knowledge questions in Hindi PDF

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Related Gk Questions and Study Material

Learning Objectives

After completing this unit, you’ll be able to:

  • Determine the focus of your organization by examining the Five Most Important Questions developed by Peter Drucker.
  • Explain the value of each of these five questions.
  • Apply these questions to your role as an admin.


In this unit, we examine Drucker’s Five Most Important Questions designed to help companies reflect deeply on the nature of their business and the value they provide to customers.

By developing clear, concise answers to these five questions, organizations can focus resources on what really matters to customers and, therefore, to the business (Figure 3).

Every executive team member and senior manager should be able to answer these questions in detail, and every employee should have a basic understanding of them.

Figure 3. Drucker’s Five Most Important Questions

A word of caution: These questions might seem obvious, but are challenging to answer because customers and markets are constantly changing. The questions need to be continuously reexamined.

Question 1: What Is the Purpose of the Business?

The Five Most Important Questions Pdf free download. software

Seems like a pretty easy question, right? Actually, it’s deceivingly hard. The business purpose is not “to make money” or to “satisfy customers”—every business must do these to survive. The purpose of the business is why the company exists—that is, the difference it makes in the eyes of its customers.

We have an alumnus of our school who works on Wall Street. He recently told us that he thinks about this question all the time when working with new businesses. Often there are new technologies or innovations that can spur interest, but the fundamental question remains: What exactly is the value proposition of the company, and how enduring is this value to customers?

For example, let’s take a business we all know—Southwest Airlines. When it was started over 40 years ago, the founders declared:

How right they were!

High-performing organizations understand their purpose and use it to develop a compelling vision and mission. These can galvanize the workforce and be used to align departments and resources, guide decision-making and action-taking, and empower and motivate individuals at all levels.

The question of purpose also raises basic issues for senior managers. If the purpose is unclear, or not meaningful in the eyes of customers, it can be hard to focus resources in the proper direction. It can also make it hard to understand the type of information managers need to guide the enterprise and execute activities.

Finally, the purpose of the business can shift as customers and markets change. If not detected, these can lead to a misalignment or missed opportunity. Conversely, they can lead to great opportunities if attention is paid to how to enhance the purpose of the business.

That’s what a little organic coffee company in Waitsfield, Vermont did when it was approached by someone who was developing a single-serving coffee maker. Green Mountain Coffee’s investment in Keurig has gone on to evolve its purpose and its value.

As they note on their website, “We’ve blended the disruptive innovation of a leading-edge technology company with the consumer focus of a socially conscious, premium coffee company to become what Keurig Green Mountain is today: an innovative, technology- and values-based, personal beverage system company.” Oh, and one with almost $5 billion in annual revenues.

Let’s start thinking about how this question might apply to your organization. Check out the tips in Figure 4.

Q1. What is our purpose?

“Purpose … is like a guiding star on the horizon—forever pursued but never reached. Yet although purpose itself does not change, it does inspire change.” Jim Collins

Examine your organization’s vision, mission, and values statements. What clues do these provide about the defining purpose of the organization?

Put yourself in the customer’s good-smelling shoes, and ask yourself the following: Why am I a customer of this organization? What do their products or services do to enhance my life?

Then jot down the organization’s reason for being in 1–3 sentences.

Figure 4. Tips for determining organizational purpose

Question 2: Who Is Our Customer?

Looks like another simple question. But again, not so fast. Instead of specifically naming customers (for example, “our customer is Costco”), we want to describe the customer in more abstract terms to define a category or group of customers (such as, “our customers are warehouse-style, discount retailers of consumer products”).

These groups or categories of customers are called segments. The specific segments that a company chooses to focus on are called target segments . It is important to know the defining features of your target segments so that you can connect with them and develop solutions they love.

Back when Edward Jones was a relatively modest investment company, they contacted Peter Drucker for advice. Through a series of letters (that’s right, snail mail) and then meetings in the mid 1980s, they honed in on the target market segment, which enabled worldwide growth of the company. Specifically, Edward Jones started as a company focused on and styled for rural-based, conservative, long-term individual investors. Drucker persuaded them that there were such customers in metropolitan areas—and lots of them! From there, Edward Jones quickly opened in major metropolitan markets and now has over 11,000 offices serving more than 7 million individual investors.

Of course, customers are not fixed targets. Rather, they are constantly changing and evolving. Even if you know your customers well, they can sometimes surprise you. So the organization must continually ask, “Who are our customers now? Are they changing, and what does that mean for the organization?”

Let’s look at art museums. They are constantly under pressure to understand the changing mix of their market and successfully adjust. For example, the Denver Museum of Art went through a multi-year process to identify the interests of millennial visitors and evolved their programs to be more millennial-friendly. Perhaps this has happened in your city, too, with music, evening events, and interactive effects now becoming the norm in the museum world. Why? Because they see value in repositioning art museums as a destination of choice for a younger generation of customers.

Take a look at the tips in Figure 5 for ways to come up with a solid answer to this question for your organization.

Q2. Who is our customer?

“The first step toward finding out what our business is, is to raise the question: ‘Who is the customer?’—the actual customer and the potential customer.” Peter Drucker

A good place to start is often the managers in the sales, marketing, or product management departments. Who do they think are the primary customers? How is the customer profile changing in their eyes? Are certain segments growing or shrinking?

A second place might be the social media department (or person!). Where do they target their social media activities? What kind of customers are most active on social media?

Then write down who you think are the primary customers of your organizations. Are you tracking or could you track those customers in Salesforce?

Figure 5. Tips for identifying and defining customers

Question 3: What Does Our Customer Value?

Unlike previous questions, this question can only be answered by the customers themselves.

Drucker’s key insight is that what customers value—and what a company thinks they value—are often quite different. The only thing that matters is what customers believe. There is a danger in assuming that you know what customers value. Senior management needs to make sure that people systematically work directly with customers to figure out what matters and how to deliver this value better than the competition.

A great example of this is the groundbreaking work of the Cleveland Clinic to focus on patient experience. Their patient surveys revealed that while the patients were generally satisfied with the clinical performance of Cleveland Clinic hospitals, they expected better interpersonal treatment by nurses, attendants, and physicians during their stay. Focusing directly on the perceptions of patients, the Clinic came to understand that patients valued (assessed) the entire experience as caregiving, which is a deeper meaning than satisfaction (see Figure 6).

The five most important questions pdf free download pdf

Figure 6. The Cleveland Clinic focuses on what customers value

The Clinic then went on to create an industry-leading Office of Patient Experience, lead by a Chief Experience Officer, that manages, assesses, and trains to ensure that the clinic is “patient first.” Their commitment to understanding what their patients value and developing that value is now being evaluated throughout the United States and internationally.

Tips for developing and finding out what customers value in your organization are provided in Figure 7.

Q3. What do customers value?

“What satisfies their needs, wants, aspirations is so complicated that it can only be answered by the customers themselves.” Peter Drucker

The best way to capture this is to ask the customers directly through interviews, surveys, focus groups, social media, and so on. Your marketing and sales teams should have these.

It’s also helpful to review customer feedback and reports and go on your social media sites if you have them.

Then try to jot down 1–3 customer quotes or comments that best capture their value perceptions. Has Salesforce helped or could it help in finding this information?

Figure 7. Tips for figuring out what customers value

Question 4: What Are Our Results?


How does a company really know if it is doing a good job? Ideally, results measure the extent to which the company is meeting its purpose (see Question 1). Measuring the delivery of purpose is the hard part. A framework, such as the Balanced Scorecard (covered later in this trail), can help guide your efforts.

In practice, most companies find it necessary to set performance objectives and metrics and then use benchmarking and judgment to assess results (Figure 8).

Figure 8. Common areas for metrics and benchmarking

To be successful, two areas that need careful attention are:

  • Setting the right metrics Your metrics obviously need to capture what you’re trying to measure, which can be tricky and require a lot of thought. Hastily crafted metrics have a tendency to backfire. If people have it in their performance objectives to hit a metric, be careful, they might just do it! For example, a company that shall remain nameless repeatedly heard from customers that their customer service hold times were too long. So they set the customer service department performance metric to lower average hold times. And they put bonus money behind it. What happened? Customer service representatives answered every phone call quickly, took the customers names and phone numbers, and then hung up. The average hold times dropped dramatically, but the time to resolution worsened. Customers were even more unhappy. Yes, the VP of customer service was let go, but only after the damage was done.
  • Properly interpreting results This requires a deep understanding of the business. Communicating insights and context along with the numbers typically helps everyone make better decisions. Going strictly by the metrics, without context or understanding of the measures, can be disastrous. For example, not everything should be looked at “on average.” A company that has horrible results in its core products and better than expected results in a dying portion of its business might appear OK on average, but it’s far from OK.

In summary, it is important to spend time defining what good looks like and coming up with the correct performance metrics. Effective management requires that everyone knows what the metrics represent and how to read and interpret the results. The tips in Figure 9 can get you started.

Q4. What are our results?

“To obtain balanced efforts, the objectives of all managers on all levels should be keyed to both short-range and long-range considerations.” Peter Drucker

A best practice is for your performance metrics to follow a balanced approach, with measures falling into categories such as:

  • Customers perceptions
  • Financial performance
  • Operations (efficiency and effectiveness measures)
  • Organizational knowledge and capabilities
  • Social contribution

Review your organization’s last annual report and jot down 1–3 key results. How do you think Salesforce has informed or could inform these results?

Figure 9. Tips determining organizational results

Question 5: What Is Our Plan?

Answering the prior questions might seem like enough, but it’s not. You need a plan, and there’s a simple reason why.

The plan for the organization describes where it wants to be, how it intends to get there, and the resources required to be successful. The plan also needs to fit reality; otherwise, it too is just a wish.

Developing a plan is hard work requiring tough decisions be made. A good plan includes the mission and vision of the company, goals and objectives, strategy, activities, and action steps.

The plan also includes a realistic budget. Without deep diving into finance and accounting, the financial portion of the plan shows how the company will profitably do what it says it will do. Financial plans are forward-looking projections built on estimations (and some assumptions) of future sales, cost of operations, and so on.

The Five Most Important Questions PDF Free download

Plans ultimately need to be effectively executed, so the specifics need to be understood and embraced by everyone in the organization. This takes work! But as Drucker noted, this is the true calling of the management practice—to build a team all moving in the same direction.

Looking to understand more about your organization’s plan? Take a look at the tips in Figure 10 to get started.

Q5. What is our plan?

“Planning does not substitute facts for judgment nor science for leadership. It recognizes the importance of analysis, courage, experience, intuition—even hunch. It is responsibility rather than technique.” Peter Drucker

Review your organization’s strategic plan or other executive communications on the subject.

Then jot down 1–3 areas where you think Salesforce has been or could be most useful in determining and tracking results, and enabling the plan.

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Figure 10. Tips understanding the organizational plan


The Five Most Important Questions are a fundamental mechanism for understanding and focusing resources to achieve organizational success. The method has been used all over the world and allows for a set of activities that provides tangible value to organizations.

In the next units, we examine a case to show how Salesforce can contribute to an organization seeking to enhance its value along the lines suggested by the five questions, and explore ways admins can help.


  • Drucker, P. F. (2011). The Five Most Important Questions You Will Ever Ask About Your Organization (Vol. 90). John Wiley & Sons.
  • Drucker, P. F. (1954). The Practice of Management.
  • Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (1996). Building your company’s vision. Harvard Business Review, 74 (5), 65.
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